Prevalence of primary bacterial co-infections among patients with COVID-19 in Brunei Darussalam

Prevalence of primary bacterial co-infection in COVID-19

Authors

  • Aieman Bashir Department of Medicine, Pengiran Muda Mahkota Pengiran Muda Haji Al-Muhtadee Billah Hospital, Tutong, Brunei Darussalam
  • Muhammad Syafiq Abdullah Department of Medicine, Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Saleha Hospital, Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Darussalam
  • Natalie Raimiza Momin Department of Medicine, Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Saleha Hospital, Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Darussalam
  • Pui Lin Chong Department of Medicine, Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Saleha Hospital, Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Darussalam
  • Rosmonaliza Asli Department of Medicine, Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Saleha Hospital, Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Darussalam
  • Babu Ivan Mani Department of Medicine, Pengiran Muda Mahkota Pengiran Muda Haji Al-Muhtadee Billah Hospital, Tutong, Brunei Darussalam
  • Vui Heng Chong Department of Medicine, Pengiran Muda Mahkota Pengiran Muda Haji Al-Muhtadee Billah Hospital, Tutong, Brunei Darussalam; Department of Medicine, Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Saleha Hospital, Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Darussalam

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.5365/wpsar.2021.12.3.856

Abstract

Objective: Bacterial co-infections in cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can lead to less favourable outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of primary bacterial co-infections among patients with COVID-19 in Brunei Darussalam.

Methods: Seventy-one of 180 patients admitted to the National Isolation Centre between 9 March 2020 and 4 February 2021 were screened for primary bacterial co-infection (infection occurring <48 h from admission). We compared patients with a primary bacterial co-infection to those without.

Results: Of the 71 screened patients, 8 (11.2%) had a primary bacterial co-infection (sputum 37.5% [6/16], blood 2.8% [1/36], urine 1.7% [1/60]), for a period prevalence rate of 4.4% (respiratory tract infection 3.3% [6/180], bloodstream 0.6% [1/180], urine 0.6% [1/180]) among all COVID-19 patients. Older age, presence of comorbidity, symptoms at admission (fever, dyspnoea, nausea/vomiting), abnormal chest X-ray (CXR) and more severe COVID-19 (P < 0.05) were associated with primary bacterial co-infection. Primary bacterial co-infection was also associated with development of secondary infection and death (all P < 0.05). Only one patient with primary bacterial co-infection died (methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus septicaemia and multiorgan failure).

Conclusions: Our study showed that primary bacterial co-infection affected 4.4% of patients with COVID-19 in Brunei Darussalam. Older age, presence of comorbidity, symptoms and abnormal CXR at admission and more severe disease were associated with a primary bacterial co-infection. Lower respiratory tract infection was the most common co-infection.

Author Biographies

Aieman Bashir, Department of Medicine, Pengiran Muda Mahkota Pengiran Muda Haji Al-Muhtadee Billah Hospital, Tutong, Brunei Darussalam

Medical Officer

Muhammad Syafiq Abdullah, Department of Medicine, Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Saleha Hospital, Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Darussalam

Consultant

Natalie Raimiza Momin, Department of Medicine, Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Saleha Hospital, Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Darussalam

Consultant

Pui Lin Chong, Department of Medicine, Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Saleha Hospital, Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Darussalam

Consultant

Rosmonaliza Asli, Department of Medicine, Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Saleha Hospital, Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Darussalam

Consultant

Babu Ivan Mani, Department of Medicine, Pengiran Muda Mahkota Pengiran Muda Haji Al-Muhtadee Billah Hospital, Tutong, Brunei Darussalam

Consultant

Downloads

Published

08-09-2021

Issue

Section

COVID-19: Original Research